Wednesday, 31 October 2012

Heaven by C.S. Lewis


‘I reckon,’ said St Paul, ‘that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory that shall be revealed in us.’
If this is so, a book on suffering which says nothing of heaven, is leaving out almost the whole of one side of the account. Scripture and tradition habitually put the joys of heaven into the scale against the sufferings of earth, and no solution of the problem of pain which does not do so can be called a Christian one. We are very shy nowadays of even mentioning heaven.
We are afraid of the jeer about ‘pie in the sky’, and of being told that we are trying to ‘escape’ from the duty of making a happy world here and now into dreams of a happy world elsewhere.


But either there is ‘pie in the sky’ or there is not.
If there is not, then Christianity is false, for this doctrine is woven into its whole fabric. If there is, then this truth, like any other, must be faced, whether it is useful at political meetings or no. Again, we are afraid that heaven is a bribe, and that if we make it our goal we shall no longer be disinterested. It is not so. Heaven offers nothing that a mercenary soul can desire. It is safe to tell the pure in heart that they shall see God, for only the pure in heart want to. There are rewards that do not sully motives. A man’s love for a woman is not mercenary because he wants to marry her, nor his love for poetry mercenary because he wants to read it, nor his love of exercise less disinterested because he wants to run and leap and walk .Love, by definition, seeks to enjoy its object.


You may think that there is another reason for our silence about heaven—namely, that we do not really desire it. But that may be an illusion. What I am now going to say is merely an opinion of my own without the slightest authority, which I submit to the judgement of better Christians and better scholars than myself. There have been times when I think we do not desire heaven; but more often I find myself wondering whether, in our heart of hearts, we have ever desired anything else.

You may have noticed that the books you really love are bound together by a secret thread. You know very well what is the common quality that makes you love them,though you cannot put it into words: but most of your friends do not see it at all, and often wonder why, liking this, you should also like that.
Again, you have stood before some landscape, which seems to embody what you have been looking for all your life; and then turned to the friend at your side who appears to be seeing what you saw—but at the first words a gulf yawns between you, and you realise that this landscape means something totally different to him, that he is pursuing an alien vision and cares nothing for the ineffable suggestion by which you are transported.
Even in your hobbies, has there not always been some secret attraction which the others are curiously ignorant of—something, not to be identified with, but always on the verge of breaking through, the smell of cut wood in the workshop or the clap-clap of water against the boat’s side?


Are not all lifelong friendships born at the moment when at last you meet another human being who has some inkling (but faint and uncertain even in the best) of that something which you were born desiring, and which, beneath the flux of other desires and in all the momentary silences between the louder passions, night and day, year by year, from childhood to old age, you are looking for, watching for, listening for?


You have never had it.
All the things that have ever deeply possessed your soul have been but hints of it
- tantalising glimpses, promises never quite fulfilled, echoes that died away just as they caught your ear.
But if it should really become manifest— if there ever came an echo that did not die away but swelled into the sound itself—you would know it.
Beyond all possibility of doubt you would say ‘Here at last is the thing I was made for.’
We cannot tell each other about it.
It is the secret signature of each soul, the incommunicable and unappeasable want, the thing we desired before we met our wives or made our friends or chose our work, and which we shall still desire on our deathbeds, when the mind no longer knows wife or friend or work.
While we are, this is.
If we lose this, we lose all.



This signature on each soul may be a product of heredity and environment, but that only means that heredity and environment are among the instruments whereby God creates a soul.
I am considering not how, but why, He makes each soul unique.
If He had no use for all these differences, I do not see why He should have created more souls than one.
Be sure that the ins and outs of your individuality are no mystery to Him; and one day they will no longer be a mystery to you.
The mould in which a key is made would be a strange thing, if you had never seen a key: and the key itself a strange thing if you had never seen a lock.
Your soul has a curious shape because it is a hollow made to fit a particular swelling in the infinite contours of the Divine substance, or a key to unlock one of the doors in the house with many mansions.
For it is not humanity in the abstract that is to be saved, but you—you, the individual reader, John Stubbs or Janet Smith.
Blessed and fortunate creature, your eyes shall behold Him and not another’s.
 All that you are, sins apart, is destined, if you will let God have His good way, to utter satisfaction.
The Brocken spectre ‘looked to every man like his first love’, because she was a cheat.
But God will look to every soul like its first love because He is its first love.
Your place in heaven will seem to be made for you and you alone, because you were made for it
—made for it stitch by stitch as a glove is made for a hand.


It is from this point of view that we can understand hell in its aspect of privation.
All your life an unattainable ecstasy has hovered just beyond the grasp of your consciousness.
The day is coming when you will wake to find, beyond all hope, that you have attained it, or else, that it was within your reach and you have lost it forever.
This may seem a perilously private and subjectivenotion of the pearl of great price, but it is not.
The thing I am speaking of is not an experience.
You have experienced only the want of it.
The thing itself has never actually been embodied in any thought, or image, or emotion.
Always it has summoned you out of yourself. And if you will not go out of yourself to follow it, if you sit down to brood on the desire and attempt to cherish it, the desire itself will evade you.
‘The door into life generally opens behind us’
and
‘the only wisdom’ for one ‘haunted with the scent of unseen roses, is work.’

This secret fire goes out when you use the bellows: bank it down with what seems unlikely fuel of dogma and ethics, turn your backon it and attend to your duties, and then it will blaze.
The world is like a picture with a golden background, and we the figures in that picture.
Until you step off the plane of the picture into the large dimensions of death you cannot see the gold.
But we have reminders of it.
To change our metaphor, the blackout is not quite complete.
There are chinks. At times the daily scene looks big with its secret.
Such is my opinion; and it may be erroneous.
Perhaps this secret desire also is part of the Old Man and must be crucified before the end.
But this opinion has a curious trick of evading denial.
The desire—much more the satisfaction—has always refused to be fully present in any experience.
Whatever you try to identify with it, turns out to be not it but something else: so that hardly any degree of crucifixion or transformation could go beyond what the desire itself leads us to anticipate.


Again, if this opinion is not true, something better is.
But ‘something better’—not this or that experience, but beyond it—is almost the definition of the thing I am trying to describe.
The thing you long for summons you away from the self.
Even the desire for the thing lives only if you abandon it.
This is the ultimate law—the seed dies to live, the bread must be cast upon the waters, he that loses his soul will save it. But the life of the seed, the finding of the bread, the recovery of the soul, are as real as the preliminary sacrifice.
Hence it is truly said of heaven ‘in heaven there is no ownership. If any there took upon him to callanything his own, he would straightway be thrust outinto hell and become an evil spirit.’  But it is also said ‘To him that overcometh I will give a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.’

What can be more a man’s own than this new name which even in eternity remains a secret between God and him?
And what shall we take this secrecy to mean?
Surely, that each of the redeemed shall forever know and praise some one aspect of the Divine beauty better than any other creature can.
Why else were individuals created, but that God, loving all infinitely, should love each differently?
And this difference, so far from impairing, floods with meaning the love of all blessed creatures for one another, the communion of the saints.
If all experienced God in the same way and returned Him an identical worship, the song of the Church triumphant would have no symphony, it would be like an orchestra in which all the instruments played the same note.


Aristotle has told us that a city is a unity of unlikes,  and St Paul that a body is a unity of different members.  Heaven is a city, and a Body, because the blessed remain eternally different: a society, because each has something to tell all the others—fresh and ever fresh news of the ‘My God’ whom each finds in Him whom all praise as ‘Our God’.
For doubtless the continually successful, yet never complete, attempt by each soul to communicate its unique vision to all others (and that by means whereof earthly art and philosophy are but clumsy imitations) is also among the ends for which the individual was created.
For union exists only between distincts; and, perhaps,from this point of view, we catch a momentary glimpse of the meaning of all things.
Pantheism is a creed not somuch false as hopelessly behind the times.
Once, before creation, it would have been true to say that everything was God.
But God created: He caused things to be other than Himself that, being distinct, they might learn to love Him, and achieve union instead of mere sameness.
Thus He also cast His bread upon the waters.



Even within the creation we might say that inanimate matter, which has no will, is one with God in a sense in which men are not.
But it is not God’s purpose that we should go back into that old identity (as, perhaps, some Pagan mystics would hav eus do) but that we should go on to the maximum distinctness there to be reunited with Him in a higher fashion.
Even within the Holy One Himself, it is not sufficient that the Word should be God, it must also be with God.
The Father eternally begets the Son and the Holy Ghost proceeds: deity introduces distinction within itself so that the union of reciprocal loves may transcend mere arithmetical unity or self-identity.
But the eternal distinctness of each soul—the secret which makes of the union between each soul and God a species in itself—will never abrogate the law that forbids ownership in heaven.
As to its fellow-creatures, each soul,we suppose, will be eternally engaged in giving away to all the rest that which it receives.
And as to God, we must remember that the soul is but a hollow which God fills.
Its union with God is, almost by definition, a continual self-abandonment—an opening, an unveiling, a surrender, of itself.
A blessed spirit is a mould ever more and more patient of the bright metal poured into it, a body  ever more completely uncovered to the meridian blaze of the spiritual sun.
We need not suppose that the necessity for something analogous to self-conquest will ever be ended, or that eternal life will not also be eternal dying.


It is in this sense that, as there may be pleasures in hell (God shield us from them), there may be something not all unlike pains in heaven (God grant us soon to taste them).
For in self-giving, if anywhere, we touch a rhythm notonly of all creation but of all being.
For the Eternal Word also gives Himself in sacrifice; and that not only on Calvary.
For when He was crucified He ‘did that in the wild weather of His outlying provinces which He had done at home in glory and gladness’.
From before the foundation of the world He surrenders begotten Deity back to begetting Deity in obedience. And as the Son glorifies the Father, so also the Father glorifies the Son.
And,with submission, as becomes a layman, I think it wa struly said ‘God loveth not Himself as Himself but as Goodness; and if there were aught better than God, He would love that and not Himself’.
From the highest to the lowest, self exists to be abdicated and, by that abdication, becomes the more truly self, to be thereupon yet the more abdicated, and so forever.
This is not a heavenly law which we can escape by remaining earthly, nor an earthly law which we can escape by being saved.
What is outside the system of self-giving is not earth, nor nature, nor ‘ordinary life’, but simply and solely hell. Yet even hell derives from this law such reality as it has.
That fierce imprisonment in the self is but the obverse of the self-giving which is absolute reality; the negative shape which the outer darkness takes by surrounding and defining the shape of the real, or which the real imposes on the darkness by having a shape and positive nature of its own.



The golden apple of selfhood, thrown among the false gods, became an apple of discord because they scrambled for it. They did not know the first rule of the holy game, which is that every player must by all means touch the ball and then immediately pass it on.
To be found with it in your hands is a fault: to cling to it, death. But when it flies to and fro among the players too swift for eye to follow,and the great master Himself leads the revelry, giving Himself eternally to His creatures in the generation, and back to Himself in the sacrifice, of the Word, then indeed the eternal dance ‘makes heaven drowsy with the harmony’.
All pains and pleasures we have known on earth are early initiations in the movements of that dance: but the dance itself is strictly incomparable with the sufferings of this present time.
As we draw nearer to its uncreated rhythm, pain and pleasure sink almost out of sight.
There is joy in the dance, but it does not exist for the sake of joy.
It does not even exist for the sake of good, or of love.
It is Love Himself, and Good Himself, and therefore happy.
It does not exist for us, but we for it.
The size and emptiness of the universe which frightened us at the outset of this book, should awe us still, for though they may be no more than a subjective by-product of our three-dimensional imagining, yet they symbolise great truth.


As our Earth is to all the stars, so doubtless are we men and our concerns to all creation; as all the stars are to space itself, so are all creatures, all thrones and powers and mightiest of the created gods, to the abyss of the self-existing Being, who is to us Father and Redeemer and indwelling Comforter, but of whom no man nor angel can say nor conceive what He is in and for Himself, or what is the work that he ‘maketh from the beginning to the end’.
For they are all derived and unsubstantial things. Their vision fails them and they cover their eyes from the intolerable light of utter actuality, which was and is and shall be, which never could have been otherwise, which has no opposite.

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